Testosterone and estrogen

Estrogen is a steroid hormone that released from ovaries and is involved in the development and regulation of female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. 

Site of production :

Estrogen is produced mainly by the ovaries and adrenal glands, and also by fat tissues. The Corpus luteum also plays role in the production of estrogen.

Forms of estrogen 1

Three major forms of estrogen are: 

Estrone (E1) is the primary (1°) form of estrogen that is formed after menopause 

Estradiol (E2) is the form of estrogen that is released during the puberty time. Estradiol  is the most potent form of estrogen.

Estriol (E3)  is the form of estrogen that is  released during pregnancy

Mode of action

Estrogen acts through intracellular receptors of cells by regulating the transcriptional process.

Estrogen function by acting on

  • ovaries causes growth of egg follicles ,
  • on vagina maintains thickness and promotes lubrication.
  • breast causes its development and lobulation especially during pregnancy
  • uterus causes the thickness of endometrial wall during pregnancy 
  • In males Estrogen regulates some functions like maturation of sperms and it may be necessary for a healthy libido.
  • Estrogen also controls cognitive health , bone health, the function of the cardiovascular system , and other essential bodily processes 

Abnormalities 

Low levels of estrogen have following effects :

  • Lack of vaginal lubrication causes painful sex.
  • thinning of the urethra can cause increased urinary tract infections
  • Irregular or absent periods.
  • Shifts in mood 
  • Hot flashes.
  • Breast tenderness.
  • Headache 
  • Depression and anxiety 

Abnormal high levels of estrogen in females can cause the following effects: 

  • Weight gain specifically around the waist and hips
  • Heavy or light periods (on and off)
  • Fatigue
  • Fibroids in the uterus
  • Fibrocystic lumps in the breasts
  • Low sex drive
  • Low mood or anxiety
  • Bloating 
  • Headaches
  • Disrupted sleep
  • Hair loss
  • In males high estrogen can slow down the sperm production process

Testosterone

Nature:  it is the primary sex hormone and an anabolic steroid in males. It is involved in development of secondary sexual characteristics in males.

Control  

Its release is controlled by brain and pituitary gland. Signals sent from the brain to the pituitary gland at the base of the brain, control the production of testosterone in men. The pituitary gland then relays these signals to the testes and causes them to produce testosterone. A “feedback loop” regulates the amount of this hormone in the blood. When testosterone levels rise too much, the brain sends signals to the pituitary gland to reduce its production.

Site of production 

Testosterone is produced by the interstitial cells or Leydig cells of testes.

Mode of action :

Testosterone acts on cells through intracellular receptors called transcription-regulating androgen receptors (ARs)

Functions of Testosrerone 2

  • Testosterone plays major role in the development of mature sperm.
  • It regulates.  – Sex drive

                                 Bone  mass

                                 Fat distribution

                                 Muscle size and strength

                                Red blood cell production

                                Body hair 

                                Hoarseness of voice 

  • In male humans, testosterone plays a significant role in the development of the testes and prostate.
  • Testosterone also has role in sex drive, bone density, and muscle strength in wwomen.

Abnormalities of Testosterone 3

  • Men with very high testosterone levels may experience: Acne, Aggressive, excessive body hair , Headache, Heart or liver problems ,hypertension ,High libido ,Infertility  ,Low sperm count ,Prostate enlargement, which may cause difficulty passing urine ,Swelling of the legs and feet , weight gain.
  • Low levels : includes erectile dysfunction Adolescent boys with too little testosterone may not experience normal masculinization. For example, there may be not proper enlargement of the genitals, facial and body hair may be scant and the voice may not deepen normally.
  • High testosterone in females can cause: Acne ,Anxiety ,Darkened skin ,Deepening of the voice ,Enlarged clitoris ,Excess facial and body hair ,Infertility ,Irregular periods and frontal baldness.

References

  1. https://www.singlecare.com/blog/estriol-vs-estradiol/#:~:text=Estradiol%20(Estradiol%20coupons%20%7C%20Estradiol%20details,cream%20for%20estrogen%20replacement%20therapy.
  2. https://www.health.harvard.edu/medications/testosterone–what-it-does-and-doesnt-do#:~:text=Signals%20sent%20from%20the%20brain,of%20hormone%20in%20the%20blood.
  3. https://www.health.harvard.edu/medications/testosterone–what-it-does-and-doesnt-do

“I have the metabolism of a sloth and a body that hates putting on muscles. This curse motivated me to study weight loss and nutrition. I want to share my experiences and knowledge to help you achieve your ideal body.”

— Christian Tanobey

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